सोमवार, 21 मई 2012

How to lose weight- Eat daily 100gm mushroom

“You are what you eat” is a saying that reflects the need to think about your
food intake. To maintain healthy weight we should all be looking for a balanced
diet that includes foods low in fat and kilojoules and with a mixture of vitamins,
minerals and antioxidants. In the following interview Accredited Practicing
Dietitian, author and university lecturer, Glenn Cardwell makes a strong case to
include mushrooms in the daily diet.

Mushrooms and weight loss
Interview Glenn Cardwell / Tony McManus

Tony - Glenn Cardwell, Accredited Practising Dietitian and author, university
lecturer and an expert on mushroom nutrition. He is back here to answer some
questions on mushrooms and the role they can play in maintaining a healthy
weight. It is very important. We all know how Australians are putting on weight
at an alarming rate. There are many diets promoting weight loss and I think we
all know also that doing more exercise and eating less food, especially fatty
foods may be going to be the key to weight loss. So we ask the question Glenn,
does the humble mushroom have a role to play in any of this?

Glenn Cardwell - Absolutely Tony! When we look at the nutrition profile for
mushrooms there is basically no fat in a mushroom, there are very few kilojoules
and then you've got all the other benefits, the vitamins, the minerals that come
with mushrooms, and the antioxidants. So I think it's got a great role to play in
keeping our weight healthy.

Tony - There has been a fair bit of research now on the relationship between
mushrooms and weight.

Glenn Cardwell – Well, there has and there was some research released in
mid-2007. This has come from John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
What they did was to take a meal and took out the meat part and replaced it
with mushrooms. They found that over four days people consumed roughly 200
cal (that works out to be about 800 kJ) less a day, for four days. So it seemed
to have a significant effect on helping us to control our eating and eating less
food. Now, what's going to happen from here on in it is that they are going to
research to see whether this can be maintained over a long period of time.
Tony - We are always being told to eat low Glycaemic Index foods. For those of
us not too sure you might just explain what is the GI of the mushroom?

Glenn Cardwell – The Glycaemic Index is a measure of your blood glucose
response to a food and people are saying if you keep your Glycaemic Index
foods low then you've got a better chance of controlling your eating and
controlling your weight. Now, the beauty about the mushroom is that the
Glycaemic Index is so low that you can't even measure it because it's just a food
that has almost no effect on your blood glucose levels. So that means it's
perfect for everybody, especially for people who have got diabetes.

Tony – Grandma and Mum used always say "you have got to have your fibre,
you've got to have fibre lovie". So I'd imagine the mushrooms also has plenty of
fibre, that's what we always grew up with didn't we?

Glenn Cardwell - Yes indeed Tony! It's got fibre. A 100 g serve of mushrooms
will give you a modest amount of fibre and the fibre in mushrooms is interesting
because it seems to have the benefit of helping to control your blood cholesterol
levels as well. There may be other benefits too that we’re not too sure about
because we know the fibre mushroom is different to the fibre you will find in
fruits and vegetables.

Tony – They are just beautiful and we are about to have some. So how many
should we be eating at this particular time Glenn?

Glenn Cardwell - We know that the mushroom is very low in kilojoules, very
low in fat, very abundant in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants and I would say
to you Tony, 100 g each day is what you need to get the benefits from
mushrooms. That works out to be about three button mushrooms a day, so it's
not a lot.

Frequently Asked Questions by new mushroom cultivators

Are mushrooms fruit or vegetable?    

Neither actually. Fruits and vegetables are members of the plant family. Mushrooms evolved later, just before the evolution of animals. Being different to fruit and vegetables helps to explain why mushrooms contain more B vitamins, vitamin D, selenium, and the antioxidant ergothioneine than found in fruit and vegetables. The mushroom is truly different to fruits and vegetables, yet is able to wonderfully complement the benefits they offer.

Can mushrooms prevent you from getting cancer?
We don’t know for sure, but there has been some very interesting research of late showing that mushrooms influence specific enzymes in the body and could be playing a role in reducing the risk of both breast and prostate cancer.
Research conducted at the University of Western Australia showed that women who regularly ate an average of 10g of mushroom a day reduced their risk of breast cancer by over 60%. Ten grams is less than one button mushroom. Further research is being conducted in the US to see the effect of eating mushrooms on cancer development.
With the mushroom being high in antioxidants, essential nutrients, fibre and selenium, we feel confident that mushrooms are helping to enhance the health of all Australians.

Do mushrooms contain vitamin B12?    

Australian government laboratories tested the mushroom in 1987 and found that a serve of mushrooms provided about 10% of the daily needs of vitamin B12. Since then there has been speculation whether this was a correct level, or the right type, of B12.
To accurately establish the levels of B12 in mushrooms, scientists at the University of Western Sydney have checked mushroom samples from all the major mushroom growing centres around Australia in 2009.
There is a modest amount of B12 in mushrooms, closer to 5% of daily needs in a serve (three button mushrooms). It is the same type of B12 as found in meats and seafood, so it is the type of B12 that the body finds very easy to use.

Do mushrooms contain vitamin D?    

Mushrooms are the only non-animal fresh food source of vitamin D. High levels of vitamin D has been found naturally in mushrooms in the field. That means that leaving mushrooms in the sunshine for a short time dramatically increases the vitamin D levels.
The Australian mushroom industry, with help from the University of Western Sydney and Pennsylvania State University, have been testing to see how much light is needed to provide the daily needs of vitamin D in a serve of mushrooms (three button mushrooms).
Now that the trials have been completed, the mushroom industry is looking to find a commercial way to make vitamin D enhanced mushrooms available at the supermarket to help Australians easily get their vitamin D needs.

How much mushroom should I eat each day?    

A 100g serve will provide all the nutritional benefits available from a mushroom. That works out to be about three button mushrooms, or one medium flat mushroom, a day. Easy.

Is it true that mushrooms have antioxidants?    

Yes. In fact, when compared to commonly eaten vegetables, they are in the top five for antioxidants.
Recently, mushrooms were found to be the best source of the antioxidant ergothioneine. As humans have a special protein to transport ergothioneine in the blood, it has been speculated that humans have naturally long been mushroom eaters. Ergothioneine is involved in keeping red and white blood cells healthy.

What is the GI of a mushroom?    

The Glycaemic Index (GI) of mushrooms is close to zero. The GI of foods is a measure of their effect on blood sugar levels. As mushrooms have virtually no carbohydrate, they do not raise blood sugar levels, which is good news for everyone, as well as those with diabetes.

Eat daily 100 grams muhsrooms and keeps away cancer

For a long time, scientists have promoted fruits and vegetables to help reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers. It is unlikely that any one nutrient or compound in food provides the protection against future disease. It is far more likely that the synergy of many compounds in food combine effectively to offer protection to the body.
It is not surprising that mushrooms have been found to play their part in lowering cancer risk, even though they are neither fruit nor vegetable. Research shows that mushroom extracts reduced breast cancer growth (Chen 2006). “Eating 100 grams, or even less, of mushrooms per day could have an effect on preventing new breast cancers”, said lead researcher Dr Shiuan Chen. Dr Chen has begun human clinical trials and we await the outcome of those trials.

In 2009, research from the University of Western Australia showed that women who ate an average of only 10g of mushrooms a day had a 65% lower risk of breast cancer (Zhang 2009). To date, there have been three international studies linking women who eat mushrooms to a 50-60% lower risk of breast cancer compared to those who do not eat mushrooms (Shin 2010; Hong 2008).

How could mushrooms be helping to protect us? The mushroom contains compounds that suppress two enzymes called aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase. Aromatase converts the hormone androgen to estrogen, which in turn can promote the development of breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women. Currently, aromatase inhibitors are being used in the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

The enzyme 5 alpha reductase converts the hormone testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and is thought to play a role in the development of prostate cancer and benign prostate enlargement in men. The inhibitors of this enzyme reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. The research on animal cells suggest that compounds in mushrooms could have a role in the protection against breast and prostate cancer.

Although it is too early to say that eating mushrooms will stop you from getting breast or prostate cancer, the future looks very promising for the role mushroom could have in reducing the risk of these two common cancers. On-going research is checking to see if mushrooms play a very specific role in protecting against cancer. In the meantime, we can say with confidence that mushrooms are a very useful source of B vitamins, minerals and antioxidant compounds.

Mushroom has uniqe flavour

The unique mushroom flavour

Mushrooms have a rich, savoury flavour, much loved by consumers, chefs and cooks the world over. What is it that makes mushrooms so tasty? It is the natural glutamates in mushrooms that give them their deep flavour, making them a favourite with meat eaters and vegetarians alike.

Glutamate is an amino acid that is found in all foods with protein. Glutamate is also produced by the body, with high levels in the muscles and the brain. Glutamate is used as a neurotransmitter in the brain by half of all nerve cells.

The glutamate level in the mushroom increases as the mushroom matures from a button to a flat mushroom. Natural glutamate is also responsible for much of the flavour in parmesan cheese, soy sauce, anchovies, tomato juice, Vegemite and Marmite.

Umami history

Umami is a Japanese term first coined by Kikunae Ikeda, professor of physical chemistry at the University of Tokyo, in 1908 for the taste of a broth made from seaweed, dried fish and shiitake mushrooms (Chen 2009, Kurihara 2009). Umami is the colloquial Japanese term for “tasty”.

We often hear that the range of tastes in food include salty, bitter, sweet and sour. Foods with natural glutamates provide a fifth taste, now called umami, describing a food that has a savoury or meaty taste. It appears that the combination of glutamate and a savoury odour links both the taste and smell neural pathways in the brain, resulting in a very pleasant flavour. (Rolls 2009)

Potential role of glutamate

Glutamate is a major fuel for the gut. Glutamate is extensively metabolised by the intestines and therefore, not all of it is absorbed by the gut (Burrin 2009). Glutamate is a signaling molecule in the nervous system of the intestines. The intestinal metabolism of glutamate probably occurs mainly in the enterocytes in the epithelial cells of the intesitinal lining (Burrin 2009). Free glutamate may also be absorbed via the stomach and be involved in the digestive function, such as contractile actions of the intestines, gastric acid secretion and blood flow.

Certain proteins, called hydrophobins, are found only in mushrooms and these proteins contribute to the texture of the mushroom, making eating them so enjoyable. It is the combination of natural glutamates, protein and other natural flavour compounds that makes the mushroom texture and flavour so pleasurable.

You can now see why mushrooms are the flavour that everyone enjoys and they are a very successful substitute for meat. We sometimes consider mushrooms as the meat-eaters vegetarian choice. It also helps understand why mushrooms complement so many meat dishes.

The natural free glutamates in mushrooms are not to be confused with the monosodium glutamate (MSG) sometimes added to foods as a flavour enhancer. There is no MSG in mushrooms. In fact, with mushrooms in the meal you probably don’t need to use salt or flavour enhancers.

Mushrooms are very high in the powerful antioxidant

For a long time, scientists have appreciated the antioxidant effect of fresh produce such as vegetables and fruit. Eating plenty of high anti-oxidant foods seems to protect you from future disease. The body also makes antioxidants.

Antioxidants are natural compounds in food that help neutralise the free radicals produced by the body. Free radicals are also quite natural, although they tend to cause damage to all parts of the body over time, hence speeding up the ageing process. For example, free radicals can damage the DNA found in the nuclei of body cells. When DNA becomes damaged, then antioxidants within the body work to correct the damage before it becomes a cancerous cell.

If the antioxidants made by the body get overwhelmed then the antioxidants in food provide a very useful helping hand to protect the body from free radicals. Mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants, as confirmed by laboratory analysis. In one study of 30 common vegetables, mushrooms were placed in the top 5 highest antioxidant levels when compared to vegetables (Pellegrini 2003; Savoie 2008).

Mushrooms are very high in the powerful antioxidant ergothioneine, in amounts similar to that found in animal foods (Ey 2007). Ergothioneine is found in very few vegetables or fruit. Ergothioneine appears to protect blood cells, especially monocytes and red blood cells that transport nutrients and oxygen to body cells (Martin 2010). It also protects your artery lining from atherosclerosis (fatty deposits).

Ergothioneine is not produced by the body. It can only be obtained through your diet. Low levels of ergothioneine start the oxidation (damage) of DNA and proteins. It has been suggested that ergothioneine should be classified as a vitamin because it is so important to health (Paul 2010). Ergothioneine levels do not decrease with cooking, so you get your ergothioneine through both raw and cooked mushrooms.

In 2005, scientists were surprised to find an ergothioneine transporter protein in the blood (Gründemann 2005). Transporter proteins only exist in the blood if they have a specific role. For example, haemoglobin is a transporter protein for carrying oxygen to cells. To find one for ergothioneine suggests that humans have long evolved as mushroom eaters.

Mushrooms are particularly high in phenolic compounds that have been long recognised for their antioxidant capabilities. A serve of mushrooms also provides about a quarter of an adult’s requirements of selenium, an antioxidant mineral.

Put all the news together and it makes mushrooms one of the highest antioxidant foods on the market. It is good sense that mushrooms should regularly feature on your healthy eating menu.

बुधवार, 9 मई 2012

जमीन के बिना भी खेती करने का कमाल दिखाया महिलाओं ने

जमीन के बिना खेती नहीं हो सकती, लेकिन मशरूम की खेती के जरिए इसे संभव बनाया है छत्तीसगढ़ के दक्षिण बस्तर (दंतेवाड़ा) जिले के कासौली राहत शिविर में निवासरत मॉ शारदा स्व-सहायता समूह की महिलाओं ने। नक्सल हिंसा और आतंक के चलते घर छोड़ने को मजबूर ग्रामीण परिवारों की ये गरीब महिलाएं अपने बुलंद हौसलों और कड़ी मेहनत से न केवल बंद कमरे में मशरूम की खेती कर अपना और अपने परिवार का भरण-पोषण अच्छी तरह कर रही है बल्कि भूमिहीन लोगों के सामने उन्होंने आत्मनिर्भरता का एक उदाहरण भी पेश किया है।
     ज्ञातव्य है कि नक्सल पीड़ित दक्षिण बस्तर जिले के अनेक गांवों के लोग नक्सल हिंसा और आतंक से त्रस्त होकर अपना घर-बार, खेत-बाड़ी को छोड़ कर राज्य शासन की मदद से विभिन्न शिविरों में अपना गुजर बसर कर रहे हैं। शिविर में रह रहे लोगों को राज्य सरकार जहॉ मूलभूत सुविधाएं मुहैया करा रही है वहीं इन ग्रामीणों को अपने पैरों में खड़े होने तथा उन्हें आत्मनिर्भर बनाने विभिन्न व्यवसाय मूलक प्रशिक्षण एवं सहायता भी शासन की ओर से दी जा रही है। इसी कड़ी में जिले के गीदम विकासखण्ड स्थित कासौली राहत शिविर में रहने वाली महिलाएं मलको, सिमरी, राधा, कुमली, लाखे, नहिनों, पाइके, चिमरी, पाकली, चमली तथा सीते ने मॉ शारदा स्व सहायता समूह का गठन किया और बिना भूमि की खेती मशरूम उत्पादन का निर्णय लिया। इस समूह को विशेष राहत योजना के तहत शासन द्वारा आवश्यक प्रशिक्षण एवं सुविधाएं मुहैया करायी गयी और आज इस समूह की महिलाएं बिना भूमि के केवल एक बंद कमरे में मशरूम का विपुल उत्पादन कर न केवल आत्मनिर्भर हुयी है बल्कि सभी को दातों तले उंगली दबाने को मजबूर कर दिया है।  
          उल्लेखनीय है कि शाकाहारी एवं मांसाहारी सभी लोगों की विशेष पंसद मशरूम आज व्यजंनो में अपना विशेष महत्व रखता है। कम लागत, हर मौसम में बिना भूमि के मात्र एक बंद कमरे में कम मेहनत एवं आसानी से उत्पादन होने के कारण मशरूम की दिनोदिन मांग एवं महत्व बढ़ता जा रहा है। समूह की अध्यक्ष श्रीमती मलकों कहती है कि वे लोग नक्सल हिंसा के चलते अपना घर, खेत-बाड़ी को छोड़कर सुरक्षा हेतु शिविरों में आना पड़ा यहॉ वे लोग दैनिक मजदूरी कर अपना जीवन निर्वहन कर रहे थे परंतु अब मशरूम उत्पादन से उन्हें अच्छी आमदनी होने लगी है। वो बताती है कि कम पूंजी और मात्र 20 से 25 दिनों में मशरूम का उत्पादन होने लगता है। मशरूम उत्पादन हेतु स्पॉन (बीज) 40 से 50 रूपये प्रति किलो की दर से बाजार में आसानी से मिल जाता है और एक किलो बीज से 10 से 15  किलों मशरूम का उत्पादन होता है। समूह की सदस्य श्रीमती पाइके बताती है कि जब हमें कृषि विभाग के अधिकारियों द्वारा मशरूम उत्पादन का प्रशिक्षण दिया जा रहा था तब हमें यह बहुत ही कठिन लग रहा था परंतु यह तो बहुत ही आसानी से होता है। समूह की अन्य सदस्य श्रीमती चिमरी बताती है कि मशरूम तैयार करने के लिए धान अथवा गेहूं की भूसी के गोले बनाकर उसमें स्पॉन मिलाकर पालीथीन में डालकर नमीयुक्त छप्पर के नीचे रखते है । नमी बनाये रखने के लिए समूह के सदस्य बारी-बारी से इसमें पानी का छिड़काव करते है और खाली समय में महिलाएं अपने घर एवं मजदूरी का कार्य करती है। सदस्य श्री नहिनों कहती है कि प्रतिदिन 3 से 4 किलों मशरूम का उत्पादन हो जाता है तथा बारिश के दिनों में 100 से 150 रूपये तथा गर्मियों में 200 से 250 रूपये प्रति किलो की दर से मशरूम बिक जाता है। मशरूम खरीदने गीदम एवं दंतेवाड़ा से लोग कासौली आते है वहीं गीदम बाजार में हाथो-हाथ मशरूम अच्छी कीमत में बिक जाता है। आज मशरूम की बिक्री से समूह के खाते में 15 हजार रूपये भी जमा हो गये है। वहीं समूह की महिलाओं ने बिक्री में से एक-एक हजार रूपयों से अपने-अपने घर की जरूरतों का समान भी खरीद लिया है। मशरूम की बढती मांग को देखते हुए समूह की महिलाएं काफी उत्साहित है और इसे बड़े पैमाने पर इसकी खेती करने की ठान ली है।
          कृषि विभाग के अधिकारियों का कहना है कि मशरूम पौष्टिकता की दृष्टि से भी काफी महत्वपूर्ण है। इसमें प्रोटीन, फाइबर्स एवं फोलिक एसिड के तत्व समाहित होते हैं जो स्वास्थ्य की दृष्टि से काफी लाभदायक होते हैं। आज मशरूम के इन्ही गुणों के कारण इसकी मांग बढ़ती जा रही है। शहरों में मशरूम के आचार, मुरब्बा एवं सूप पाउडर के साथ ही दवाईयों में भी इसकी खासी मांग है। मॉ शारदा स्व सहायता समूह की सफलता को देखकर अन्य महिलांए एवं समूह भी इस और आकृष्ट हो रहे है।

मशरूम यानी धन व सेहत का लाभ

विश्व में प्रचलित सबसे महंगी खाद्य सामग्रियों में स्वर्णभस्म के बाद मशरूम का स्थान आता है। इसको खाने से न केवल कैंसर जैसी खतरनाक बीमारियों के होने की आशंका कम होती है बल्कि शुगर, हार्ट, बीपी व एनीमिया के रोगियों के लिए भी काफी लाभदायी होती है। इसका उत्पादन कर किसान न केवल अच्छी खासी कमाई कर सकते हैं बल्कि खुद भी बेहतर स्वास्थ्य प्राप्त कर सकते हैं। कई किस्म की कृषि, उद्यान संबंधी फसलों में प्रयोग कर दर्जनों पुरस्कार प्राप्त करने वाले प्रखंड के एकम्बा निवासी प्रगतिशील युवा किसान अनीस कुमार ने जिले के लोगों को मशरूम की खेती की वैज्ञानिक तरीके से कराने का बीड़ा उठाया है।
अनिस के प्रतिभा देख आश्चर्यचकित समाज कल्याण मंत्री परवीन अमानुल्लाह व पटना की एक स्वयंसेवी संस्था के निदेशक डा. सुमन लाल ने कहा कि अगर अनीस की बताई वैज्ञानिक विधियों से किसान मशरूम का उत्पादन करें तो बेगूसराय ही नहीं बल्कि संपूर्ण राज्य के किसानों की तरक्की के द्वार खुल जायेंगे। इस प्रशंसा से उत्साहित अनीस ने अब संपूर्ण जिले में मशरूम उत्पादन संबंधी जानकारी घूम-घूमकर किसानों को देने का निर्णय लिया है।
शनिवार को बलिया प्रखंड में लगभग 200 सौ किसानों को प्रशिक्षण देने के उपरांत रविवार को प्रखंड के छौड़ाही बाजार में किसानों को मशरूम उत्पादन के लाभ के बारे में विस्तार से बताया। श्री कुमार ने कहा कि विश्व की सबसे महंगी खाद्य सामग्री में स्वर्ण भस्म के बाद मशरूम का स्थान आता है। मशरूम के सेवन से मधुमेह, गठिया, कैंसर जैसी गंभीर बीमारियों का शरीर पर आक्रमण नहीं होता है। उन्होंने कहा कि मशरूम में कोलेस्ट्राल व स्टार्च कार्बाेहाइड्रेड के नहीं के बराबर होने से यह मधुमेह, हृदय रोग, ब्लड प्रेशर, खून की कमी के रोगियों के लिये काफी फायदेमंद है। मशरूम की खेती गरीब लोग अपने घर के अंदर भी कम सकते हैं। इसका उत्पादन करने में बहुत कम पूंजी की आवश्यकता होती है। यदि कृषि विभाग इसके स्पान (बीज) उपलब्ध कराने की पहल करे तो मशरूम उत्पादन में बेगूसराय जिला प्रथम स्थान पर रहेगा। उन्होंने बताया कि मशरूम के स्पान (बीज) उत्पादक किसान अनिरुद्ध सिंह भी इस प्रशिक्षण अभियान में बराबर का सहयोग कर रहे हैं। इनकी प्रेरणा से शाहपुर के सुनील कुमार, भोजा के राजेन्द्र चौधरी, छौड़ाही के विनय कुमार समेत दो दर्जन किसानों ने मशरूम उत्पादन प्रारंभ किया है।